当前位置:6165金沙总站 > www.6165.com > 美洲土著居民及其文化,建国史话

美洲土著居民及其文化,建国史话

文章作者:www.6165.com 上传时间:2019-06-19

第1集 - 《建国史话》系列节目概况

第4集 - 美洲土著居民及其文化

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English. I'm Shirley Griffith.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

The Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell about early Native Americans.

The Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

VOICE ONE:

And I'm Steve Ember. Today history repeats itself. We start our series over again. The last time we were at the beginning was in February of two thousand three.

Scientists believe that the native peoples of America came here thousands of years ago during the last ice age. These people settled the land from the cold northern areas to the extreme end of South America.

VOICE ONE:

科学家认为,美洲的土著居民是数千年前在最后一个冰河时代来到美洲大陆的。考古学家从寒冷的北部地区到南美洲的最南端,都找到过他们的足迹。

THE MAKING OF A NATION has a loyal following. In fact, listener research finds it the most popular weekly program in VOA Special English.

As the groups of people settled different parts of the land, they developed their own languages, their own cultures and their own religions. Each group's story is important in the history of the Americas. However, it is perhaps the tribes of the central part of the United States that are most recognized. They will be our story today.

It started in May of nineteen sixty-nine. Some people can remember when THE MAKING OF A NATION was on the radio two times a week. People who grew up listening to it are old enough now to listen with their own children, or even their grandchildren.

居住在不同地区的土著居民,创造了自己独特的语言、文化和宗教。每个土著部落的故事,都是美洲历史的重要组成部分,但是最为后人认可的,还是那些在今天的美国中部定居的土著部落。

The series tells a story. You can think of it not just as a series of programs about the history of America and its people, but a series of lessons. The subjects include exploration, revolution, civil war, social and political change, the rise of industry and modern technology, and more.

VOICE TWO:

建国史话讲述了一个关于美国历史和人民的故事,从探索新大陆,到独立战争、南北战争、再到社会政治变迁,以及工业和现代科技的兴起。

In eighteen-oh-four, Merriwether Lewis and William Clark led a group of explorers to the Pacific Ocean. They were the first educated Americans to see some of the native tribes of the Great Plains. And they were the first white people these Native American people had ever seen.

VOICE TWO:

1804年,刘易斯和克拉克率领的探险队到了太平洋。他们是见到大平原地区土著部落的第一批受过教育的美国人,也是土著人第一次见到的白人。

We ended last week at program number two hundred thirty-eight. The subject was the presidential election of two thousand four. As time adds to the story, we add new programs to the series.

When the group of explorers neared the eastern side of the great Rocky Mountains, they met with a tribe of Indians called the Shoshoni. Merriwether Lewis was the first to see them.

In a sense, THE MAKING OF A NATION is a living history. Yet some of the announcers are no longer even alive after all these years.

Let us imagine we are with Merriwether Lewis near the Rocky Mountains almost two hundred years ago. Across a small hill, a group of sixty Shoshoni men are riding toward us.

Here and there, too, the language may sound a little dated. For example, some of the programs call black people Negroes. The use of that term may be historically correct, but today the socially accepted name is African-American.

刘易斯和克拉克等人到达落基山东侧的时候,大约六十个肖肖尼土著居民正骑马向他们走来。他们生动地记载了当时的情景。

Technology has also changed. Today THE MAKING OF A NATION is not just on radio but also on the Internet. At www.unsv.com, you can download MP3 files and transcripts. That way you can listen anytime or anyplace -- and read along. The site also includes archives, in case you ever miss a program.

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

The first thing we see is that these men are ready for war. Each is armed with a bow and arrows. Some carry long poles with a sharp knife on the end.

So how was the nation made? Why did loyal citizens rebel against one nation and start their own, with different laws? THE MAKING OF A NATION answers these and other questions about American history.

我们的第一反应是,这些人已经做好了战斗的准备。他们都佩有弓箭,还有些人拿着顶端插着尖刀的杆子。

We tell the story of how a group of farmers, businessmen and lawyers wrote a document they called the Constitution of the United States. On September seventeenth, seventeen eighty-seven, delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia met one last time to sign it.

They are riding very fast. Some horses seem to be without riders. But a closer look shows that the men are hanging off the sides, or under the horse's neck. They are using the horses' bodies as protection.

我们要介绍美国独立战争的前因后果,讲述一群农民、商人和律师是如何拟定美国宪法,以及1787年9月17号宪法大会代表在费城签署宪法的故事。

他们骑得飞快,有些马背上好像并没有人,仔细看才会发现,骑手都贴在马肚子上,或是挂在马脖子下面,用马的身体做掩护。

We explain why that document is still extremely important today -- and not just to Americans. Other governments have used it as a guide to creating a modern democracy.

The horses are painted with many different designs that use blue, black, red or other colors. Later we learn that each design has a special meaning for the man who owns the horse. Each one tells a story.

我们要解释美国宪法为什么至今依旧十分重要,成为很多国家建设现代民主的样本。

这些马的身上画着五颜六色的图案,后来我们才知道,每个图案有不同的意思,对马的主人有特殊的意义。

VOICE TWO:

For example, the man riding one horse is a leader during battle. Another has killed an enemy in battle. One of the designs protects the horse and rider.

U.S. Constitution

比如说,其中一个人是战斗总指挥,另一个在战斗中杀死过敌人,其中一种图案能保护马匹和骑手的安全。

U.S. Constitution

VOICE TWO:

We explore why the writers of the Constitution included guarantees of freedom of speech and religion, and the right to a fair and public trial.

As they come nearer, the Shoshoni group sees that we are not ready for war. They slow their horses but are still very careful. Merriwether Lewis holds up a open hand as a sign of peace. The leader of the Shoshoni does the same. They come closer.

我们要分析美国宪法的起草者为什么要把言论自由、宗教自由和接受公开公正审判的权利写进宪法里。

这些肖肖尼骑手走近后,看到我们不象要打仗的样子,于是放慢了步伐,但还是十分小心。刘易斯举起一只手,以示和平。肖肖尼人的头领也做出同样的手势,做出回答。双方继续靠拢。

We also talk about the reasons for the American Revolution. One of the most important was the idea that citizens of a country should have a voice in its decisions.

The Shoshoni are dressed in clothes made from animal skin. Most of these skins are from deer or the American buffalo. The shirts they wear have many designs, and tell stories like the designs on the horses. One shows a man has fought in a battle. Another shows a man has been in many raids to capture horses. Still another shows the man saved the life of a friend.

British citizens in the American colonies paid taxes but had no representatives in the British Parliament. Taxation without representation led to growing anger in the American colonies.

肖肖尼人穿着用兽皮做的衣服,大多是鹿皮或水牛皮。他们的衬衣有不同的图案,也有不同的意思,可以显示某个人参加过战斗、多次参加捕获马匹的突袭行动,或是救过朋友的性命。

我们还要讨论美国独立战争的原由。当时,美国殖民地上的英国公民虽然交税,但在英国议会里却没有代表席位。"纳税无代表"的状况引起了公愤。

VOICE ONE:

The leaders of the revolt made important changes. They decided that any free citizen could be a candidate for public office. And they made sure that all free men who owned land and paid taxes were permitted to vote.

Captain Lewis smiles at these men. He again makes a hand sign that means peace. The signs are now returned. Lewis and the Shoshoni chief cannot speak each other's language. They can communicate using hand signs.

美国独立战争的领导人们做出重大变动,规定凡是自由人都可以参加公职的选举,而且拥有土地并且纳税的自由人都有权投票。

刘易斯冲这些人笑笑,再次做出和平的手势,肖肖尼人也做出同样的手势。刘易斯和肖肖尼头领语言不通,但是可以通过手势进行交流。

Not until nineteen twenty did the Constitution give women the right to vote. Later, another change lowered the voting age for Americans from twenty-one to eighteen.

VOICE TWO:

但直到二十世纪二十年代,宪法才给予妇女投票 权。后来的一项修正案又把美国投票的法定年龄从21岁降低到了18岁。

One young Shoshoni man comes near. He drops to the ground from his horse. He is tall and looks strong. His hair is black in color and long. He wears one long bird feather in the back of his hair. Some of his hair is held in place by animal fur.

Our programs explain the thinking behind these and other rights. They also tell the story of each presidential election and presidency in American history.

一个年轻的肖肖尼人翻身下马,他身材高大强壮,留着长长的黑发,头发用兽皮绑着,头发后面还有一根很长的羽毛。

VOICE ONE:

His arms have been painted with long lines. We learn that each line represents a battle. There are many lines. But we leave the Shoshoni without him adding another one.

THE MAKING OF A NATION explores the good and the bad in American history. For example, how could slavery exist in a nation whose people declared that "all men are created equal" and with a right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness?

他的胳膊上划着很多长线,每条线代表着一场战斗。但是这次跟我们的遭遇,双方并没有兵戎相见。

建国史话并不回避美国历史上负面的东西。比如说,在一个宣称"人人生而平等",有生存、自由和追求幸福的权利的国家里,怎么又会容忍奴隶的存在呢?

VOICE ONE:

Many programs tell about the ideas and issues that have shaped the United States. But most importantly, they tell about the people.

The Shoshoni were only one of many tribes of native people who lived in the Great Plains area. The life, culture and society of these tribes developed because of the land that was their home.

建国史话主要讲的是美国人民。

(我们在前一个小时的建国史话中讲到了刘易斯和克拉克的探险队第一次遇到土著部落--肖肖尼人的情景。)其实,肖肖尼人只是大平原上众多土著部落中的一个。这些部落的生活、文化和社会形态都带有大平原的特色。

George Washington

The Great Plains today is still huge. Even in a car, traveling at one hundred kilometers an hour, it can take two long days of driving to cross the Great Plains. The plains reach from several hundred kilometers north in Canada across the middle of the continent to Mexico in the south. In the East, the Great Plains begin near the Mississippi River and go west to the huge Rocky Mountains. It is the center of the United States.

George Washington

直到今天,大平原还是一望无际,即使是坐在时速100公里的车上,要穿越大平原也要整整两天的时间。大平原北起加拿大,南抵墨西哥,东靠密西西比河,西至落基山脉,是美国的中心地区。

For example, George Washington was a farmer before he became a military commander. He became president because the citizens of the new country wanted him as their first leader.

There are big rivers here, deserts and mountains. Other areas are so flat that a person can see for hundreds of kilometers. Millions of kilometers of this land were once covered by a thick ocean of grass.

After two terms, he gave up power by his own choice. He once again became a farmer and a private citizen. In his farewell address in seventeen ninety-six, he warned Americans about the dangers of political parties.

大平原上有河流、沙漠、山脉,其余的地方则是一望无际的草地。

本文由6165金沙总站发布于www.6165.com,转载请注明出处:美洲土著居民及其文化,建国史话

关键词: www.6165.com 6165金沙总站